The Community-based Rural Water Governance and Institutional Compliance


  • Seemi Waheed
  • Maqbool H. Sial
  • Aisha Azhar


Rural Water Supply, Institutional Analysis and Development Framework, Collective Action, Collaborative Design, Collaborative Compliance


In 1990, the government of Punjab, Pakistan introduced community-based water governance in dual water zone areas (sweet and brackish). The jointly completed rural water supply (RWS) was handed over to a community-based organization (CBO) accompanied by training of CBO members and signing of the agreement for adherence with rules by the CBOs and the government. There has been little investigation as to why and how the CBOs tend to comply with rules-in-form and how do the informal rules influence operation & maintenance (O&M) of RWS. The results of focused group interviews with CBO members, community, and government officials reveal that the formal institutions partially adhered but the self-organizing capabilities of the CBOs sustain the RWS. Some of the households are unwilling to get water connection and pay charges. While others with water connections are unwilling to pay. These are some of the challenges in the O&M of RWS and reasons for the CBOs financial deficit which, however, are being covered through philanthropic donations, a predominant local value. The study proposes a water metering system, payment for consumption, and mandatory water connections for the RWS.




How to Cite

Waheed, S. ., Sial, M. H. ., & Azhar, A. . (2021). The Community-based Rural Water Governance and Institutional Compliance. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 41(4), 823-835. Retrieved from