Plastic Materials in a Classroom Environment: An Assessment of Nursery Classes in Sokoto State, Nigeria


  • Yusuf Sarkingobir Department of Environmental Education, Shehu Shagari University of Education Sokoto, Nigeria
  • Syed Abdul Waheed Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Studies, University of Okara, Pakistan.
  • Marwanu Abubakar Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria.
  • Nadia Gilani Assistant Professor, Department of Teacher Education, University of Okara, Pakistan.


Plastic, Nursery Class, School, Health, Pollution, Additives, Hormone Disruptors


The study assesses the plastic contact with children in the classroom environment in Sokoto schools because plastics contain harmful chemicals that can inflict severe harm on the health and other domains of children. A survey using 330 questionnaires of teacher respondents was carried out. Results were presented in frequency tables. The chi-square test shows that the results are significantly different at p<0.05. The order of stated plastics in the classes is food wrappers, writing materials, food containers, clothes, chairs, and shoes. The majority of respondents think that plastics harm pupils and the minority think that they harm the environment. Method of waste disposal in class environment schools reveal, open dumping, and as the methods of disposal. Of the ways suggested to reduce the effects of plastics in nursery classes environment; therewith, mass awareness was the most submitted, then environmental education at schools, and legislation was the least submitted. There are several forms of plastics in children’s contact in Sokoto schools and are processed through an inappropriate waste management method. Thus, can exert harm on them as well as affect their growth and development, their rights to healthy food, water, and air, and threaten public health. Environmental education in schools, mass education, and legislation are needed to protect children.


Abid, R., Hussain, M., Majeed, I., Afzal, M., Parveen, k., & Gilani, S.A. (2020). Effectiveness of health education session on knowledge of high school students regarding plastic use and its health hazards. Journal of health, Medicine and Nursing, 72, 68- 73.

Agberemi, A. (2020). Plastic pollution and Nigeria’s waste management regime: An environmental security analysis. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 14(6),12-17.

Alabi, O.A., Ologbunjaye, K.I., Awosolu, O., & Alalade, O.E. (2019). Public and Environmental health effects of plastic wastes disposal: A review. Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment,5(2),1-13.

Aljaibachi, R. & Callaghan, A. (2018). Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability. Peer J. http://doi.10.7717/peerj.4601.

Awuchi, C.G., & Awuchi, C.G. (2019). Impacts of plastic pollution on the sustainability of seafood value chain and human health. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5(11), 46-138.

Botterell, Z.L.R., Beaumont, N., Dorrington, T., Steinke, M., Thompson, R.C., Lindeque, P.K. (2019). Bioavailabilty and effects of microplastics on marine zooplankton: a review. Environmental Pollution, 245, 98-110.

Center for Health, Environment and Justice, 2010). PVC, the poison plastic: unhealthy for our nation’s children and schools.

Critchell, K. & Hoogenboom, M. O. (2018). Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behavior of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus). PloS ONE, 13(3), 1-19.

De Souza Machado, A.A., Kloas, W., Zarfl, C., Hempel, S., & Rillig, M.C., (2017). Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 24, 523-531.

Dhairykar, M., Jawre, S., & Rajput, N. (2022). Impact of plastic pollution on wildlife and its natural habitat. The Pharm Innovation Journal, SP-11(6):141-143.

Elkhaira, I., Audina B.P., N., Engkizar, E., K., M., Arifin, Z., Asril, Z., Syafril, S., & Brita Deborah Mathew, I. (2020). Seven Student Motivations for Choosing the Department of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Higher Education. AL-ATHFAL: JURNAL PENDIDIKAN ANAK, 6(2), 95-108.

Gazal, A.A. & Gheewala, S.H. (2020). Plastics, microplastics and other polymer materials- A threat to the environment. Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment, 11, 113-122.

Hemavathi, B., rani, S., & Bharathi, D. (2019). Impact of plastics on human health and environment. International Journal of Development Research, 9(1), 25264-25267.

Ibrahim, M., Alhassan, M., Gidadawa, Z.S., & Dan Galadima, H. (2019). Assessment of environmental impact of solid waste generation and disposal in Sokoto metropolis. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 9(5), 377-383.

Ibrahim, N., &Noordin, N.N. (2020). Understanding the issue of plastic waste pollution in Malaysia: A case for human security. Journal of Media and Information Warefare, 1391), 105-140.

Igbo, J.K., Chukwu, L.O., & Oyewo, E.O. (2018). Assessment of polychlorinated bisphenyls (PCBs) in water, sediments and biota from E-waste dumpsites in Lagos and Osun states, South-West, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 22(40), 459-464.

Liboiron, M. (2015). Redefining pollution and action; The matter of plastics. Journal of Material Culture, 1-24. http://doi.10.I177/1359I5622966.

Loishyn, A.A., Tkach, I.M., Chornyi, V.S., Tyschenko, M.H., Tarasenko, N.M., & Biletskyi, O. (2020). Analysisi of plastic waste processing methods. TEM Journal, 9(4), 1460-1466.

Maitlo, G., Ali, I., Maitlo, H.A., Umar, I.N., Ahmad, M.B., Bhutto, D.K., Karmani, R.K., Naich, S.u.R., Sajjad, R.U., etal (2022). Plastic waste recycling, applications, and future prospects for a sustainable environment. Sustainability, 14(11637), 1-27.

Mikolajewska, K., Stragierowicz, & Gromadzinska, J. (2015). Bisphenol A- application, sources of exposure and potential risks in infants, children and pregnant women. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 28(20), 209-241.

Mishra, L. (2012). Parental Involvement in Early Childhood Care Education: A Study. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 22–27.

Mubarroroh, A., Hidayah, N., & Pramono (2022). The effect of emotion change puzzle media on visual-spatial intelligence for early childhood education. Golden age: Jurnal Ilmiah Tumbuh Kembang Anak Usia Dini, 7(4),160-168.

Obebe, S.B., & Adamu, A.A. (2020). Plastic pollution: Causes, effects and preventions. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and technology, 4(12):85-95.

Patel, P.A., Shah, A., & Patel, H. (2016). Waste plastic bottles offering innovative building materials with sustainable application. PloS ONE, 3(3), 38-45.

Rist, S., & Hartmann, N.B. (2017). Aquatic ecotoxicity of microplastics and nanoplastics: Lesson learned from engineered nanomaterials. In. M. Wagner, & Lambert (Eds), Freshwater microplastics-Emerging Environmental Contaminants? (pp.25-49). Springer. The handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 58.

Sampson, S. (2021). The effects of non-biodegradable plastics on the environment. African Journal of Environmental and Waste Management, 8(2), 001-002.

Sarkingobir, Y., Sahabi, M., Bello, A., & Bello, S.Y. (2021). Effects of plastics pollution in soil: An overview. Subshara African Academic Research Publications: Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, 22(1), 163-177.

Shehu, A. A., Maiyaki, F.U., Yahaya, M.B., & Aliyu, S. (2020). Stakeholders views on ways to reduce the use of plastic bags and its environmental and public health impacts in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto state, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, vii(iv),196-200.

Sidi, A.S., & Yahaya, U.F. (2022). Chemical additives of concern in electronic plastics: Theoretical view. ISSRA Journal of Applied Medical Sciences, 1(3), 12-19.

Sripada, K., Wierzbicka, A., Abass, K., Grimalt, J.O., Erbe, A., Rollin, H.B., Weihe, P. etal (2022). A children’s health perspective on nano-and microplastics. Environmental Health Perspectives, 130(1), 1-15.

Tachev, A.T., & Christova-Bagdassarian, V.L. (2015). Phthalate plasticizers and safety of toys- problems and perspectives. Emerging Life Sciences Research, 19(1), 4-7.

Umar, A.I., Sarkingobir, Y., and Dikko, M., (2022). Spectro-analytical research of selected heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in four different single-use plastics commonly in contact with food from Sokoto, Nigeria. Jurnal Teknokes,15(1):76-80.

Verma, R., Vinoda, K.S., Papireddy, M., Gowda, & A.N.S., (2106). Toxic pollutants from plastic waste- A review. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35(2016), 701-708.

Zanieczszczenia, Z., tworzyw sztuznych, W., & Srodowisku wodnym, W. (2017). Plastic pollutants in water environment. Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 4(74), 51-55.

Zeynep, K. (2016). Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(12), 1149–1153.

Zhu, D., Chen, Q-L., An, X-L., Yang, X-R., Christie, P., Ke, X., Wu, L-H., & Zhu, Y-G. (2018). Exposure of soil collembolans to microplastics perturbs their gut microbiota and alters their isotopic composition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 116, 302-310.




How to Cite

Sarkingobir, Y. ., Waheed, S. A. ., Abubakar, M. ., & Gilani, N. . (2023). Plastic Materials in a Classroom Environment: An Assessment of Nursery Classes in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 43(2), 217-226. Retrieved from