Impacts of Tanneries on Environment and Health: A Case Study of Pakistan


  • Syeda Bushra Lecturer (Visiting Faculty), Department of Economics, University of Karachi, Pakistan
  • Zeeshan Atiq Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Karachi, Pakistan



Untreated Effluents, Environment, Health, Poor Drainage System, Poor Technology, Level of Awareness


Purpose: The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of untreated effluents of tanneries that are discharged into Malir River at Karachi, Ravi River at Lahore, and Chenab River at Multan, on the surrounding environment and health of workers during 2019.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Structured Questionnaire is used to attain data on the prevailing issues of health of workers and environment of tanneries, from 70 tanneries’ workers through convenience-based sampling. 30 interviewers are selected from Karachi, 20 from Lahore and 20 from Multan Qualitative content analysis method of frequencies and percentages are used in this study to analyze the participants’ responses in clear way to design policies to resolve the problems of tanneries’ workers.

Findings: The verdicts of the study signify that untreated effluents of tanneries sternly affect the environment, trigger imbalances in ecological system and spread various infectious and lethal diseases among tanneries employees. Moreover, the current waste management system of the Korangi Industrial Area, Multan Industrial Estate, and Sheikhupura Road tanneries are very suspicious due to poor system of drainage, poor technology up gradation, financial obstacles, and possessor’s bigoted behavior.

Implications/Originality/Value: The statistical analysis of this empirical study assists policy makers in employing effective methods to enhance the level of awareness among possessors and employees to reduce the pollution of the environment. Although substantial research has been commenced directing tannery waste impact assessment, less interest has been given to the issue of labors’ health. Therefore, both government officials and policy makers can benefit from the verdicts of this article.


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How to Cite

Bushra, S., & Atiq, Z. . (2023). Impacts of Tanneries on Environment and Health: A Case Study of Pakistan . Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 43(3), 367-379.