Customers’ Attitude towards Digital and Outdoor Marketing


  • Rafia Faiz
  • Sahar Hayat Awan
  • Humaira Asad
  • Hera Anam


Advertising,customer brand engagement, digital marketing, outdoor marketing, Pakistan.


The use of advertising to enhance customer brand engagement
(CBE) isgaining interest of researchers internationally. The aim of
this paper is to investigate the effect of customers’ attitude towards
digital and outdoor marketing on CBE in Pakistan.Empirical data
was collected from 452 personally administered questionnaires in
Pakistan.SPSS analysis reveals that there is a direct and positive
relationship between attitude towards digital marketing and CBE.
Attitude towards outdoor marketing also has a positive and
significant relationship with CBE. Attitude towards digital
marketing, with standardized coefficient value (.285) is a more
significant predictor of CBE than attitude towards outdoor
marketing. Independent sample t-test indicated a significant
gender difference in attitude towards digital marketing. The effect
size is very small as value of Eta squared is .002 so only .2%
variation in digital marketing is explicated by gender.Future
studies should consider other countries to increase general ability
and other dimensions like brand citizenship behavior, firm
performance, sustainable living, and sustainable innovation in the
context of sustainable business and its effect on economic
growth.Results of this study can inform policies related to
marketing effectiveness associatedwith the use of digital and outdoor marketing to enhance CBE for sustainable national and
international businesses.




How to Cite

Faiz, R., Awan, S. H. ., Asad, H. ., & Anam, H. . (2017). Customers’ Attitude towards Digital and Outdoor Marketing. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 37(1), 44-57. Retrieved from